5 ECTS credits
140 h study time

Offer 1 with catalog number 4016122ENR for all students in the 1st semester at a (E) Master - advanced level.

Semester
1st semester
Enrollment based on exam contract
Impossible
Grading method
Grading (scale from 0 to 20)
Can retake in second session
Yes
Taught in
English
Partnership Agreement
Under interuniversity agreement for degree program
Faculty
Faculty of Engineering
Department
Electronics and Informatics
Educational team
Piet WAMBACQ (course titular)
Activities and contact hours
36 contact hours Lecture
24 contact hours Seminar, Exercises or Practicals
Course Content

1) Physical models of transistors
- MOSFETs: modelling of weak, moderate and strong inversion, second-order effects due to downscaling of transistors (e.g. velocity saturation, short-channel effects). Hence, we go much further than the elementary
quadratic model of a MOS transistor. Further, all elements of the small-signal equivalent circuit are considered. In order to make a better link to circuits, all aspects of the transistor behavior are explained in
terms of voltages and electrostatic potentials, rather than energy diagrams, as is the case in many device courses (e.g. 'Electronic components 1' from the VUB).
2) Analysis of elementary transistor circuits
In IR-ETRO-3504b, a simple explanation has been given for the operation of a few elementary one-transistor and two-transistor circuits. Here, the CMOS circuits are studied more in detail. Further, more attention is paid to an integrated realization of these elementary circuits (e.g. as part of a larger analog IC), rather than to
a discrete realization. Further, mismatches between corresponding circuit elements in differential circuits are studied. A good insight in elementary circuits is very valuable for a good understanding of larger and/or more complicated analog (integrated) circuits such as operational amplifiers.
3) Operational Amplifiers (opamps) and operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs)
A few widely used CMOS configurations are studied, such as a two-stage OTA with Miller compensation and a balanced OTA with compensation by the load capacitance at the output. For these circuits an analysis is performed of the low-frequency small-signal behavior, frequency response, gain bandwidth product, stability, slew rate, common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR), power supply rejection ratio, noise behavior, common-mode input range, output swing, offset and influence of mismatches.
4) The practical session: Going through the complete design process of an analog integrated circuit. There is a practical session on the design of a CMOS operational amplifier as part of a bigger system (e.g. an active filter). The students make this project in groups of two persons. This comprises the design of a given fixed topology of an operational amplifier. This topology is analyzed using hand calculations. After an analysis the transistors are sized using the equations generated in the analysis phase. Next, this design is simulated and layout aspects are considered. The students have to write a design report to prove that they master the design by justifying the design
choices that they made.
5) Exercises: preparing the students for the practical session on opamp design.
6) Measurement lab session: in the previous year, as part of the course “Electronics” (IR-ETRO-3504b), a small CMOS circuit has been designed and submitted for fabrication. This circuit is measured in a lab session.

Course material
Digital course material (Required) : An electronic version of the course (powerpoint slides and a text) is distributed to the students before the first course.
Handbook (Recommended) : Analysis and design of analog integrated circuits, Paul Gray et al., 5th edition, New York: John Wiley, 9780470398777, 2010
Handbook (Recommended) : Microelectronic Devices and Circuits, Clifton G. Fonstad, Mc Graw-Hill International Editions, 9780070214965, 1994
Handbook (Recommended) : Modern Electronic Communication, Gray M. Miller, 9de, Prentice-Hall International, 9781292025476, 2013
Handbook (Recommended) : Design of Analog Filters, Passive, Active RC and Switched Capacitor, Rolf Schaumann, Mohammed S. Ghausi, Kenneth R. Laker, Prentice Hall, 9780132002882, 1990
Handbook (Recommended) : Distortion analysis of analog integrated circuits, Piet Wambacq en Willy Sansen, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 9781441950444, 1998
Handbook (Recommended) : The design of CMOS radio-frequency integrated circuits, Thomas Lee, 2de, Cambridge University Press, 9780521835398, 2004
Handbook (Recommended) : RF microelectronics, Behzad Razavi, 2de, Prentice Hall, 9780137134731, 2012
Handbook (Recommended) : Operation and Modeling of the MOS Transistor, Yannis P. Tsividis, Mc Graw-Hill International Editions, 9780195170153, 1988
Handbook (Recommended) : Design of analog integrated circuits and systems, Kenneth Laker and Willy Sansen, Mc Graw Hill, 9780070360600, 1994
Additional info
This course is divided over two semesters:
The theoretical part is given in the first semester (examination in January).
The practical session on the opamp design is given in the second semester. An electronic version of the course (powerpoint slides and a text) is distributed to the students before the first course. This material can also be asked from the teacher via e-mail.
Complementary study material:

Paul Gray et al., "Analysis and design of analog integrated circuits," 5th edition. New York: John Wiley, 2010.
(very well readible introductory work to the design of analog integrated circuits. Emphasis is mainly on circuits with bipolar transistors, but in the last version the amount of CMOS circuits has increased.)

Kenneth Laker and Willy Sansen, "Design of analog integrated circuits and systems", Mc Graw Hill, 1994.
(this book presents an in-depth analysis of elementary transistor circuits (both in MOS and in bipolar);
opamps are treated in more detail than in the book of Gray & Meyer. Also, the design of active filters (both continuous time and switched capacitors) is discussed.)

Yannis P. Tsividis, "Operation and Modeling of the MOS Transistor," Mc Graw-Hill International Editions, 1988.
(excellent up-to-date book on the operation of MOS transistors, useful both for designers as for device specialists)

Behzad Razavi, "RF microelectronics", Prentice Hall, 1998.
(very well readible and structured book on high-frequency (RF) integrated circuits. The book covers both architectures of transmitters and receivers and the subblocks of the architectures (low-noise amplifiers, oscillators, mixers, power amps, ...))

Thomas Lee, "The design of CMOS radio-frequency integrated circuits," Cambridge University Press, 2004.
(very well readible work about high-frequency (RF) integrated circuits. Covers a boader range than Razavi, but little computations)

Piet Wambacq en Willy Sansen, "Distortion analysis of analog integrated circuits," Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998.
(introduction to the nonlinear behavior of analog ICs)

Design of Analog Filters, Passive, Active RC and Switched Capacitor, Rolf Schaumann, Mohammed S. Ghausi, Kenneth R. Laker, Prentice Hall, 1990
(reference work for the design of active and passive filters)

Gray M. Miller, "Modern Electronic Communication", Prentice-Hall International, 1993

Clifton G. Fonstad, "Microelectronic Devices and Circuits", Mc Graw-Hill International Editions, 1994.
Learning Outcomes

Algemene competenties

The course describes the electrical aspects of analog circuits, with the emphasis on CMOS integration, and contains analysis and design techniques based on the primary concepts introduced in basic courses on electronics and electronic components. At the VUB, these courses are 'Electronics' (IR-ETRO-3504b) and 'Electronic components 1' (IR-ETRO-6182), which are taught in the first engineering year. Not only the elementary operation of circuits is considered, but also ways to design these circuits and optimisation of
towards supplementary criteria like noise behavior, bandwidth, power dissipation, large-signal behavior are considered. At the end of the course, students should be able to design an analog circuit in a modern deep submicron CMOS technology with the complexity of a fully differential operational amplifier with common-mode feedback.
The following subjects are treated:
- analysis of the operation of MOS transistors with the emphasis on their use in analog integrated circuits.
- determination of analytical expressions of poles and zeros of transfer functions of linearized analog integrated circuits.
- analysis of elementary transistor circuits (one-transistor and two-transistor circuits such as common source, common drain and common gate for MOSFETs, differential pair, current mirrors): DC biasing, frequency response, noise behavior, nonlinear behavior;
- operational amplifiers (emphasis on CMOS opamps);
- with respect to integration of analog circuits some IC specific aspects are considered, such as matching of corresponding elements in differential circuits, passive components on chip (integrated resistors, capacitors and inductors). For the logical description of digital circuits, we refer to the course on 'Digital Circuits' (IRETRO-
6180).

This course contributes to the following programme outcomes of the Master in Electronics and Information Technology Engineering:

The Master in Engineering Sciences has in-depth knowledge and understanding of
2. integrated structural design methods in the framework of a global design strategy.

The Master in Engineering Sciences can
4. reformulate complex engineering problems in order to solve them (simplifying assumptions, reducing complexity)
6. correctly report on research or design results in the form of a technical report or in the form of a scientific paper
8. collaborate in a (multidisciplinary) team
10. develop, plan, execute and manage engineering projects at the level of a starting professional
11. think critically about and evaluate projects, systems and processes, particularly when based on incomplete, contradictory and/or redundant information

The Master in Engineering Sciences has
12. a creative, problem-solving, result-driven and evidence-based attitude, aiming at innovation and applicability in industry and society
13. a critical attitude towards one’s own results and those of others
15. the flexibility and adaptability to work in an international and/or intercultural context
16. an attitude of life-long learning as needed for the future development of his/her career

The Master in Electronics and Information Technology Engineering:
17. Has an active knowledge of the theory and applications of electronics, information and communication technology, from component up to system level.
19. Has a broad overview of the role of electronics, informatics and telecommunications in industry, business and society.
20. Is able to analyze, specify, design, implement, test and evaluate individual electronic devices, components and algorithms, for signal-processing, communication and complex systems.
21. Is able to model, simulate, measure and control electronic components and physical phenomena.
22. Is aware of and critical about the impact of electronics, information and communication technology on society.

Grading

The final grade is composed based on the following categories:
Oral Exam determines 67% of the final mark.
PRAC Practical Assignment determines 33% of the final mark.

Within the Oral Exam category, the following assignments need to be completed:

  • oral exam with a relative weight of 1 which comprises 67% of the final mark.

    Note: Oral examination: (2/3 of the total score)
    Three questions with written preparation and followed by a discussion. One of the questions is about a symbolic analysis + interpretation of a simple circuit that is a variation on one of the circuits that have been treated in the courses. The use of the course material is allowed. During the discussion, some additional questions will be raised about the parts of the course material that have not been treated in the questions
    with written preparation. Also, the material covered by the "Exercises" is evaluated in the oral examination.

Within the PRAC Practical Assignment category, the following assignments need to be completed:

  • practical sessions with a relative weight of 1 which comprises 33% of the final mark.

    Note: Oral examination: (2/3 of the total score)
    The practical session contributes to the total score with a weight of 1/3.

Additional info regarding evaluation
Oral examination: (2/3 of the total score)
Three questions with written preparation and followed by a discussion. One of the questions is about a symbolic analysis + interpretation of a simple circuit that is a variation on one of the circuits that have been treated in the courses. The use of the course material is allowed. During the discussion, some additional questions will be raised about the parts of the course material that have not been treated in the questions
with written preparation. Also, the material covered by the "Exercises" is evaluated in the oral examination.
The practical session contributes to the total score with a weight of 1/3.

Academic context

This offer is part of the following study plans:
Master of Electrical Engineering: Standaard traject BRUFACE J